Feedback mechanic recommendation based on Bartle Persona

Introducing Bartle Persona

Richard Bartle (2019) uses the taxonomic description of categories how a game developer might maintain a balance their game design to cater to all different player types, the taxonomic name is Bartle Persona, based on Book Persona Studies: An Introduction by P. David Marshall, Christoper Moore, and Kim Barbour,

Moreover, based on the paper Redesigning the Bartle Test of Gamer psychology for its application in gamification processes of learning, To implement successful gamification processes of learning, it is necessary to know the personality types of gamers who dominate the audience, to incorporate mechanics and dynamics in the system design relevant for the types of gamer found. The Bartle test of gamer psychology is an instrument widely used by video game designers that identify four Gamer personalities: Achievers, Explorers, Socializers, and Killers.

If you want to know your type of game personalities or your people in the organization you can assess using the Bartle Test of Gamer Psychology template from the website, the website based on the paper from Professor of Computer Game Design, University of Essex, Richard Bartle with the title Hearts, Club, Diamond, Spades: Players Who Suit Muds. Based on the paper Gamification: Classification of the Users Based on Player Types and Motivations (Edwin Tunggawan, 2018) comparing the other persona model from Yee, Bartle’s persona is not very difficult to do, can be done by simply observing the user’s action.

Further, from the book Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges, and Leaderboards (Yu-kai Choi, 2015), Richard Bartle is a game researcher who invented the first MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) game during the 1970s, which evolved into the role-playing games (RPGs) we know today. He realized that within a virtual environment, there tend to be four main groups of players doing four distinct types of activities.

· Achievers are proud of their formal status in the game’s built-in level hierarchy, and of how short a time they took to reach it.

· Killers are proud of their reputation and of their oft-practiced fighting skills.

· Explorers are proud of their knowledge of the game’s finer points, especially if new players treat them as founts of all knowledge.

· Socializers are proud of their friendships, their contacts, and their influence.

Integrating Bartle Persona & Feedback Mechanic

Feedback Mechanics are information delivery mechanisms that communicate to the user that their actions are meaningful. It allows them to track their progress towards the Win-State, feel the urgency of time, understand the unpredictable nature of the experience, and more. (Chao, 2015). Referring to Yukai-Chou, there are eight core drives within in Octalysis gamification framework. The core drive is pivotal to notice because it suggests that there are none of these core drives behind the desired action, there is no motivation, and no behavior happens. (Chao, 2015)

· Core Drive 1: Epic Meaning and Calling

The first core drive is a grand meaning and a call. That means that people believe they are doing something bigger than themselves or choosing to do something. This is the case, for example, when some people who contribute to a project, such as Wikipedia, contribute. Many people believe that people posting on Wikipedia are not for money, but they want to protect human knowledge.

· Core Drive 2: Development and Accomplishment

Development and performance are our internal impetus for progress, developing skills, achieving mastery, and ultimately overcoming challenges. Challenges are very important because badges and trophies without challenges are completely meaningless. The majority application of this drive in PBL (Points, Badges, Leaderboards).

· Core Drive 3: Empowerment of Creativity & Feedback

Creativity and feedback empowerment are expressed when users are involved in the creative process of constantly discovering new things and experimenting with different combinations. Some people need feedback as well as show their creativity and need to adapt to their side. For example, this is why playing with Lego and making art is fun in itself. When these techniques are properly devised and integrated to give users the opportunity to be creative, they often become evergreens.

· Core Drive 4: Ownership & Possession

Ownership & Possession is a place where users are motivated to feel like they own or manage something. People who feel responsible for something basically want to improve what they want. For example, someone who can customize their avatar or profile suddenly feels more responsible.

· Core Drive 5: Social Influence & Relatedness

Social impacts and connections include all social factors that motivate people, such as mentoring, social acceptance, social feedback, friendship, and even competition and jealousy. This core drive is, for example, when other users can show extraordinary achievements such as rankings, points, additional miles, etc., and other users will be the drive to achieve the same.

· Core Drive 6: Scarcity & Impatience

Scarcity & Impatience are central motives for wanting something just because it is very rare, exclusive, or not readily achievable. For example, this initiative was commonly used on Facebook at the start. Initially only for Harvard students, then for some well-known schools. Finally, Facebook provides open access to people around the world.

· Core Drive 7: Unpredictability & Curiosity

This core drive is not surprising. It’s a motive to prevent negative things from happening. For example, this core drive is only sold for a limited time.Unpredictability is the central impetus for continuous engagement, as we do not know what will happen next. For example, a brief description of a product or offering a teaser can arouse the curiosity of users and make it unpredictable what will happen in the future.

· Core Drive 8: Loss & Avoidance

This core drive is not surprising. It’s a motive to prevent negative things from happening. For example, this core drive is only sold for a limited time.


Here is the resume core drive recommendation resume based on Octalysis Gamification Framework and also the feedback mechanic. (Chao, 2015) The author gives the gamification recommendation based on personas.

Integrating Persona and Feedback Mechanic (source: Author)


Bartle, R. (1999). Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds Spades: Players Who Suit MUDS. MUSE Ltd, Colchester, Essex.

Bista, S., Nepal, S., Paris, C., & Colineau, N. (2012). Using Gamification in an Online Community. CollaborateCom 2012. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Camacho-Cruz, H. E., Cantú, M., & Mariño, J. (2018). Redesigning the Bartle Test of Gamer Psychology for Its Application in Gamification Processes of Learning. The 12th International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics. Orlando, FL. USA.

Chao, Y.-K. (2015). Actionable Gamification Beyond Points, Badges, and Leaderboards.

Tunggawan, E. (2018). Gamification: Classification of the Users Based on Player Types and Motivations.

Zichermann, G., & Linder, J. (2013). The Gamification Revolution. United State: McGraw-Hill Education.



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Junialdi Dwijaputra

Junialdi Dwijaputra

Product Management, UX Researcher, Gamification